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Pharmacological properties
Xylometazoline is a derivative of imidazole characterized by alpha adrenomimetic properties. It causes narrowing of blood vessels, reduces hyperemia of the nasopharyngeal mucosa, edema, and the amount of secretion secreted, has a decongestant action. Prolonged use of the drug (more than 2 weeks) causes secondary dilation of blood vessels and the development of iatrogenic rhinitis (Rhinitis medicamentosa). Its cause may be a decrease in the secretion of norepinephrine from nerve endings due to excitation of α2-adrenoceptors of presynaptic localization.

The action of the drug begins 5-10 minutes after its reception and lasts for 5-6 hours, resulting in vascular spasm lasting 8-12 hours. At therapeutic doses, the drug causes narrowing of blood vessels in the nasal mucosa, resulting in a local decrease in hyperemia and edema. In case of high dose or accidental use of the drug, it is possible to swallow a drop, which causes the active substance to be absorbed from the digestive tract. Such cases are mainly described in children.

The drug is used to treat acute rhinitis, hemorrhoids, sinusitis, hay fever, allergic rhinitis, laryngitis, acute otitis (with the aim of restoring the permeability of the Eustachian tube) of viral or bacterial origin.

Admission rules and doses
Xylometazoline 0.05% Nasal Drops: 1 drop contains 0.025 mg xylometazoline hydrochloride. In children from 2 to 6 years of age, 1 drop of xylometazoline solution is injected into each nostril every 8-12 hours, and in children from 2 to 12 years of age every 8-10 hours.
Xylometazoline 0.1% Nasal Drops: 1 drop contains 0.05 mg xylometazoline hydrochloride. In children and adults over 6 years of age, the drug is prescribed in the amount of 2-3 drops every 8-10 hours. The usual course of treatment should not exceed 3-5 days and should not exceed 2 weeks.

Side effects
When taking the drug topically observed: rarely mucosal irritation, burning and uncomfortable dryness of the nasal mucosa, as well as a runny nose. Common side effects are very rare: headache, drowsiness, weakness, tachycardia associated with its overdose.

The use of the drug is contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity to its components. Xylometazoline is not recommended for ocular glaucoma. Patients who have undergone hypophysectomy and/or other surgeries on the brain are contraindicated.

Pregnancy and lactation
The use of xylometazoline during pregnancy is possible only if the beneficial effect on the mother far outweighs the potential risk to the fetus. There are no data on the excretion of xylometazoline in breast milk, but nevertheless, caution is required when using it during lactation.

Special instructions
Do not take the drug in children under 3 months of age. In patients with chronic or vasomotor rhinitis, the drug is contraindicated. Prolonged use of the drug (more than 2 weeks) causes iatrogenic rhinitis (Rhinitis medicamentosa). The drug should be used with caution in patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, angina pectoris, hypertrophy of the present gland and hyperthyroidism. Xylometazoline is not recommended when the patient is being treated with MAO inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants. Xylometazoline does not affect the ability to drive and use machines.

Overdose or accidental oral administration of the drug, especially in children, may cause relaxation, impaired vision, headache, neurosis, arrhythmia, insomnia. Prolonged use of the drug develops secondary rhinitis, which is resistant to treatment (Rhinitis medicamentosa). In case of overdose symptomatic treatment is used.

Interaction with other medicinal products
Because xylometazoline reaches a minimal degree in the general circulatory system, there is very little likelihood of it interacting with other medications. At the same time, the interaction of xylometazoline with tricyclic antidepressants has been established.

Conditions of release: Out of prescription.